高中英语语法复*之特殊句式

发布于:2021-08-01 14:24:59

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高中英语特殊句式
特殊句式包含: A. there be 句型 B. 倒装句 C. 强调句 D. 省略句 E. 插入语 F. 分隔句式
A. there be 句型
1、 there be 句型的意义:表示“某处有某物”。 2、 there be 句型的时态 there is/are ; there was/were ; there will be /there going to be ; 3、 there be 句型的特殊用法:
there be 不可与 have 连用 there be 后的谓语动词遵循就*原则 there be 的反义疑问句为谓语动词+there there +具体的动词 使表达更生动 there be 的非谓语动词为 若前面的动词后是不定式时,就用 there to be
若前面的动词后是 v-ing 时,就用 there being 4、 there be 句型的固定搭配
there is no use / sense / point + v-ing there is no need +to do there is no doubt +that 从句
B.倒装句
倒装语序,分全部倒装和部分倒装。全部倒装是把全部谓语放在主语之前,部分倒装是把助动词、情态动 词、be 动词放在主语之前。
一、全部倒装(1.2.3.4.5 作为了解)
1. there be 句型:可以用在这类句型中的动词除 be 外, 还可用 live,happen,exist,remain,stand 等等作这类句型的谓语。
There are many students in the classroom. Long ,long ago there lived a king who loved horses very much. 2. Here/There/Now+vi.(常为 come, go)+主语(必须是名词) 比较:Here you are ! 此句型中 here/there Here comes Mary. → I can see Mary coming. There goes the bell. 铃响了。→I can hear the bell ringing. Here comes the bus.汽车来了。
3. then 引起谓语为 come,follow 的句子。 Then came a new difficulty.
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Then followed eight years of the Anti Japanese War.接着是八年抗战。
4. 直接引语中间或后面,表示某人说这意思的插入语(特别是谓语较短时)。 “They must be in the fields now,” thought Xiao Lin. “Help! Help!” cried the little girl.
“Take your seats,gentlemen,” Wilson shouted. “That man is a famous star,” Xiao Yang told me in a whisper.
5. 一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,将助动词放在谓语动词前面; 无需倒装的特殊 疑问句:对主要进行提问;特殊疑问句用在宾语从句中。 Where are you from? Who helped you clean the classroom? I don’t know when the meeting will be held.
6. out,in,up, down,away 之类的副词作状语放在句首,主语比较长, 也就是说主语不能是很短的人称代词,谓语为不及物动词 come, go,run , rush,etc。句式为: 副词+vi.+主语(必须是名词)。 Out rushed the tiger from among the bushes.老虎从 In came the rose fragrance through the windows.玫瑰花香透过窗户飘了进来。 比较:如果主语是人称代词时,不倒装。
The child walked quietly to the bird, away it flew into the forest when he was about to catch it .
7. 介词短语作状语放在句首,谓语为不及物动词,主语比较长,也就是说主语不能是很短的人称代词。 句式为:介词短语+vi.+主语(必须是名词)。 In the middle of our school stands a high building.在学校中央有一座高楼。
8. 表语放在句首,表语常为形容词、分词、副词、介词短语。要求主语比较长,也就是说主语不能是很 短的人称代词。句式为:表语+系动词+主语(必须是名词)。 On the both sides of the street are beautiful flowers. South of city are two big lakes.城市的两边有两个大湖。
9. 在 so...that 从句中,如果 so+adj./adv. such 、to such +名词 So loudly did he speak that everyone could hear him. 他讲话声音足够大,以至于每个人都能听得见。 Such was Einstein a simple but great scientist.这就是爱因斯坦,一位简朴而又伟大的科学家 To such length did he told the story that all of us began to fell sleepy.
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二、 部分倒装(高考考点) 1、由 as、though、that、引导让步状语从句要用部分倒装或前置 2、含有否定意义的副词、连接词放在句首引起的部分倒装 3、 “so(nor, neither)+助动词 + 主语”与“so(nor, neither)+主语+助动词”之间的区别以及与
“ so + 主语+ 助动词”的句式区别 4、省略 if 的虚拟条件句以 had / were / should 开头引起的部分倒装 5、not until 置于句首引起后面句子的部分倒装 6、only 短语置于句首引起的部分倒装 1、由 as、though、that、引导让步状语从句要用部分倒装或前置,主语是代词时不倒装。
句式为:表语/状语/动词原形+as+主语+其他。 Clever as he is,he does n’t study well.虽然他很聪明,但他学*不好。 Child as he is, he knows a lot.虽然他是个孩子,但他懂得不少事情。 注意:表语前的名词无形容词修饰时冠词要省略 Much as I like it,I won’t buy it.虽然我非常喜欢它,但我不买。 Try as she might, she failed.虽然她试过了,但还是失败了。 =Although she try as she can, she failed .

2、含有否定意义的副词、连接词放在 句首 引起的 部分倒装

表示否定的副词

never,nor,neither,

表示半否定意义的副词 hardly,few,seldom,little,

含有 no 和 not 的词组 by no means(决不),in no time(很快),

at no time(在任何时候都不),(在任何情况下都不)

not until,not only...but also,

no sooner...than=hardly...when/scarcely...when。

倒装结构:“否定词+助动词/情态动词+主语+其他”,注意复合句倒装的是主句。

Never have I been in this city.

Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.

3、“so(nor, neither)+助动词 + 主语” ①“so+助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语” 表示前面叙述的情况也适合于另一个人或物,意为“也,同样,也如此”。 ②“neither/nor+助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语” 表示前面叙述的否定情况也适合于另一个人或物。

注意:

1 当 so 表示对前句内容的肯定、符合,或进一步强调前面所说的情况,或者赞同前面的说法时,应用自

然语序。意为

—Tom works hard.

—So he does and so do you.的确如此,你也是

2

If you don’t go,neither/nor shall I.(If you don’t go,I shall not go.)你不去,我也不

去。

注意:表示前面的多种情况也适合于另一人或物,或者既有肯定又有否定情况或涉及到不同类型的动词时

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可用:It is the same with sth./sb.或 So it is with sth./sb. She does well in English,but is poor in maths.So it is with Lucy. 她英语学得好,但数学学的差,露茜也是如此。 4、省略 if 的虚拟条件句以 had / were / should 开头引起的部分倒装 如果虚拟条件句的谓语含有 were,should ,were 可以把 if 省略而将这三个词放于条件句主语 If it hadn’t been for their help,we couldn’t have finished the work on time. =Hadn’t it been for their help,we couldn’t have finished the work on time.
5、 在 not until ,hardly…when,no sooner…than 置于句首引起后面句子的部分倒装主句须部分倒装。 Hardly had he arrived when it began to snow.他一到,天就下起雪来了。
6、only 短语置于句首引起的部分倒装 “only+副词/ 介词短语/ 状语从句”开头的句子。 Only then did I realize the importance of English. 直到那时我才意识到英语的重要性。 Only in this way can you make progress in your English. 只有通过这种方式你学英语才会取得进步。
注意: 1)在 only+状语从句+主句结构中,主句用倒装结构但从句用正常语序。 2)only 修饰主语,不倒装。 Only Tom knows the answer.只有汤姆知道答案。
7、频度副词及短语 often,always,now and then ,many a time ,every other day 等放在句首时有 时也倒装。 Many a time has he come to comfort me.他来安慰了我好多次。 Often did he warn them not to do so.他经常告诫他们不要那样去做。
8、 May you succeed. Long live the Communist Party of China!
C.强调句
强调句是为了对一定语境下的部分内容进行突出而采用的一种修辞手段。 强调的方式主要有以下三种: 一、使用强调句型进行强调 1、陈述句的强调句型: It is/ was + 被强调部分(主、宾、状)+ that/ who(当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其它部分 强调句的否定句形式为:It is / was not + 被强调部分+ that / who ... 2、一般疑问句的强调句型:同上,只是把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 3、特殊疑问句的强调句型: 被强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其它部分? When and where was it that you were born?
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4、注意:构成强调句的 it 本身没有词义;强调句中的连接词一般只用 that, who,即使在强调时间状语 和地点状语时也如此,that, who 不可省略;强调句中的时态只用两种,一般现在时和一般过去时。原 句谓语动词是一般过去时、过去完成时和过去进行时,用 It was … ,其余的时态用 It is … 。
5、not … until … 句型的强调句 句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 注意:此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until 可通用;因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that 后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。
二、.使用倒装句进行强调 三、利用词语进行强调
(1)用 very、good and、nice and、强调名词 You are the very person for this job. (2)用 right/just 强调副词性词组 I put that book right here a moment ago. (3)用 on earth、in the world、the hell 、置于疑问词后,表示“到底,究竟”以加强语气。
What on earth is the matter there?那里究竟发生了什么事? (4)用 ever 系列强调
This is the best ever! Whatever you do, wherever you go, I will waiting for you . (5)It is/ was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,需要强调谓语时,用助动词 do/ does 或 did。
He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 注意:此种强调只用 do/ does 和 did ,没有别的形式;后面的谓语动词用原形。
D. 省略句
省略是为了使句子更简洁,同时又不影响句子意义的表达。 一、功能词的省略 1、冠词的省略
a) 两个并列的名词前面,第二个可以省略 注意:如果省去冠词会误会为一个人则不省略。
b) 家庭成员后面列举的可以省略 c) 表示独一无二的职位前,这个职业不具体指只是某个人前的冠词,比如总统,主席 2、介词的省略 have difficulty / problem / trouble+(in)+ving spend (in)+ving there is no use / sense / point +(in)+ v-ing stop / prevent (from)+ v-ing be busy +(in)+ving end up +(by) +ving take turns (at ) +ving have a good / great /fun /hard / time +(in)+ving 3、连词的省略:not (only)…but(also); that 定语从句,等 二、.句子成分的省略
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1.可省略主语和谓语。

A word about your composition.我现在谈一下你的作文。(省略了 I ll say...)

Though tired,he was not disheartened.他虽然累了,但没有泄气。(省略了 he was...)

2.

You have done better this time.这一次你做得好些了。(省去从句 than you did before)

3.可用不定式 to,省去前面提到的谓语动词。

Jack didn’t pass the driving test,but he still hope to.(to 后省去了 pass)

杰克没有通过驾驶证考试,但他仍希望能通过。

4.可用 so,not

—Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend?

—I believe not/I believe so.我想不会/

(即 I don’t believe it’s going to rain)

5.根据不同语境可省略不同成分。

only if,If only,what so ever, in case

三、句子的省略

1、

Where to?

(=Where are you going to?)

What for?

(例如:What do you come here for?你来这里干什么?)

Why not do it?

(=Why don’t you do it?)

How/What about(sb)doing sth.?

2、

I love classic music more than (I like) rock and roll.

He is no longer so shy as (he was) before.

3、在时间状语和条件状语从

While (I was) on the street, I came across a friend of mine.

If (you are) offered help, never forget to say “Thank you!”

If (it is) possible, I would like to go there tomorrow.

4、

I won’t go there unless (I am) invited.

Things have turned out just as (they were) expected.

How beautiful ( it is)!

5、

The girls are very hard-working; the boys (are very hard-working) too.

The news made some people happy, but (it made) some (other people) sad.

6、

No talking

Silent, everybody!

7、

—Where have you been?—(I’ve been) Out.

—Have you been waiting long?—(I’ve been waiting for) About an hour.

8、.

—Tom, go and water the flowers.

—Why (do you make) me (water the flowers)?

四、*惯上的省略(没有意义)。

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E. 插入语
插入语是为了使语言更具有说服力或者准确,相当于进一步补充说明。他们在结构上与基本局不发生 一致、支配、附加等语法关系。通常与句中其它部分没有语法上的联系,将它删掉之后,句子结构仍然完 整。
插入语在句中有时是对一句话的一些附加解释、说明或总结;有时表达说话者的态度和看法;有时起 强调的作用;有时是为了引起对方的注意;还可以起转移话题或说明事由的作用;也可以承上启下,使句 子衔接得更紧密一些。
掌握这一语言现象不仅有利于对英语句子等的理解,还有利于提高写作等的水*。插入语的类型较多, 常见的如下几种: 一、形容词(短语)作插入语:
true,wonderful,excellent,strange to say,most important of all, sure enough
二、副词(短语)作插入语: indeed,surely,still,otherwise,certainly,however,generally, personally,honestly, fortunately,luckily,though,besides,exactly,perhaps,maybe,probably,frankly,or rather
三、介词短语作插入语: in fact,in one’s opinion,in general,in a word,in other words,in a few words,of course, by the way,as a result,for example,on the contrary,on the other hand,to one’s surprise, in short,as a matter of fact,in conclusion,in brief
四、V-ing(短语)作插入语: generally speaking,strictly speaking,judging from by,talking of, considering
五、不定式短语作插入语: to be frank, to be honest, to be sure, to tell you the truth, to make matters worse, to sum up, to start with, to begin with
六、句子(陈述句和一般疑问句): I think / hope / guess / know / believe / suppose, I am sure (我可以肯定地说), that is ( to say )(也就是说), it seems (看来是), as I see it (照我看来), what's more, what's worse, what is important / serious (重要 / 严重的是), I'm afraid (恐怕) , it is said (据说), as we all know (众所周知) 插入句独立性强,一般用标点符号将其与其他句子成分隔开。应当特别注意疑问句的插入句,它一般 为倒装语序且无任何标点符号,而且整个疑问句应当保持陈述语序。 ( 1 ) What should I do first? What do you think I should do first? (被插入的疑问句原来为倒装语序,插入后成为陈述语序) ( 2 ) Who is singing? Who do you think is singing? (被插入的疑
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F 分隔句式

1.定语从句对主谓结构的分隔

The country life he was used to _____ greatly since the opening policy.

A. changed

B. has changed C. changing

D. having changed

分析:句中 he was used to 为定语从句,修饰先行词即主句的主语,而不能对其后的谓语起任何作用,

因此整个句子缺少谓语动词,故答案为 B.

2.定语从句对宾补结构的分隔。

Mr. Green was disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ______ went wrong again.

A. repaired

B. it repaired C. repairing

D. to be repaired

分析:该题考查 have sth. done 结构。解此题的难点在于定语从句(that \which) she had had repaired

把宾语与宾补分隔开来。that \which 在从句中作宾语被省略了,repaired 作宾语补足语。所以选 A.

3. 定语从句对宾语、定语或状语的分隔。

Can you tell me the way you thought of _____ the problem?

A. working at

B. to work out C. to work for

D. working out

分析:此题考查的是双层定语。即 you thought of 为限制性定语从句,to work out the problem 为后

置定语,这两部分都用来限制宾语 the way .正确答案为 B。

4. 定语从句对强调句的分隔

It is near the place ______ there is a bomb _____ we found the dead man.

A. where; where

B. where ; that C. that ; where

D. that; that

分析:该题考查的是含定语从句的强调结构。where there is bomb 是定语从句,故正确的答案为 B。

5. 定语从句对独立结构的分隔。

With everything she needed ______ , she went home happily .

to buy

B. buying

C. bought

D. buy

分析:该题考查 with 复合结构的用法,其中定语从句(that) she needed 的使用极容易造成错选。正确

答案为 C。

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